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The article explores the past two decades rinascimenho research in the field of early modern French architectural history, encompassing more than publications. She then analyses the three major areas of study to which scholars have devoted themselves: Ein besonderer Blick gilt der Zeitspanne vom Der Artikel analysiert daraufhin drei Schwerpunkte, denen sich die Wissenschaftler gewidmet haben: Emancipation, first, from the Italian historiographic model, which traditionally defined which works were to be considered properly classical and which had been internalized to the paradoxical point that virtually no French sixteenth-century building could avoid being rinasciemnto as either backward or mannerist.
Whether Chastel and his followers ever intended or foresaw this effect, the amount of new scholarship suggests that the European lens has led historians of the French early modern to rinascimejto looking at old things in new, exciting ways.
The first is the tendency of scholarship to largely focus on typological studies and monographs of buildings while giving comparatively less attention to architects, both as individuals and as a professional community. Indeed, attempting a general history of the period in the absence of monographic studies dedicated to some of its main protagonists might seem a thankless, architwttura somewhat precarious, task. This is, at least partially, a combined function of the architettuda market and the tenure process.
Academic environments that are still recovering from the wave of critical theory in the s and from the attendant forms of mistrust if not disdain for the monograph as a genre are not particularly encouraging toward those who work in a field that is still largely monograph-oriented and in which archives are a goldmine still to be exploited. Almost a third frkmmel the works cited in the bibliography accompanying this article consists of multi-authored volumes, in the form of exhibition catalogues, conference proceedings, or multi-disciplinary research conducted by groups of two or more authors.
This is a powerful indication of the fact that, behind the old format of the monograph, readers find new kinds of research approaches and methodologies. More than two dozen volumes on sixteenth- and seventeenth-century residential buildings have appeared in the past five years alone, along with a vast number of essays and articles. In some cases, the studies provide long-awaited new comprehensive analyses, as in the case of Chambord, or fill major gaps in the literature, as in the case of Chenonceau, which had not been the subject of a scholarly study since the nineteenth century.
In a beautifully produced volume, Fonkenell compiles several years of research and archeological findings and traces the complex history of the building, its different functions, and its shifting political meanings across four centuries.
Not only, as Fonkenell states in his introduction, do the Tuileries garden and the Louvre-Tuileries nexus deserve their own, separate treatment, but also the architecture of the palace alone is enough of an enigma, particularly in terms of the phases of its conception and construction one should not forget that competing hypotheses about its original layout are still a matter of debate to fully eel the exclusive attention they receive in this study.
Ein Konstrukt aus dem Geiste des Manierismus: Architektur der Skepsis, des Glaubens, der Ziviltoleranz Pieper The volume curated rrinascimento Monique Chatenet and Fabrice Henrion collects the results of the research by specialists in the fields of history, art history, and archaeology conducted in conjunction with the restoration.
In architehtura painstakingly detailed page study, Pieper engages with the German iconographical tradition and turns Maulnes into a gateway for a wide-ranging discussion of late sixteenth-century French culture at large.
Two forthcoming works on the Louvre are also impatiently awaited: Beautifully written and illustrated, the book brings the reader through the long history of this French type, from the late Middle Ages to the early decades of the twentieth century. Helping an uninitiated audience appreciate architecture, especially when it is no longer extant, implies finding user-friendly ways to represent it, which is why all of these itailano have, to rjnascimento extents, employed three-dimensional models, often of the virtual sort.
Architettura del Rinascimento italiano : C. L. Frommel :
This imbalance does not reflect the built environment: Yet the number of monographs does not reflect the rise of interest that scholars have recently shown for sacred architecture. Lours analyzes a vast corpus of about buildings that differ widely as to their layout, their architectural and decorative features, and their internal organization, but which were all under pressure to reflect changes in their liturgical function and symbolic significance.
The book analyzes twenty-five buildings chosen on the basis of their liturgical function and their symbolic meaning rather than for their outward stylistic features.
This does not mean that their architectural and decorative qualities are neglected or given a secondary role: As most of these authors are in the early stages of their career, one can only expect more publications to come on this particular area of the field. The literature on architectural orders, their assimilation, and their interpretation in early modern France is vast, but it has an unquestioned authority in Yves Pauwels, who has published several articles and essays on the subject as well as two recent surveys: Yet both volumes are more ambitious: Constructing Identity in European Architecture, c.
Zum Palastbau in Italien und Frankreich zwischen und Melters, which, by focusing on built rather than printed architecture and by adopting a transnational comparative approach that employs the giant order as a case study, has the merit of leading the discussion about French uses of the classical orders outside the confines of both treatises and national boundaries.
The Authority of Ornament, Kavaler It encompasses micro- as well as macro-architectures, vaulting patterns as well as window tracery, fonts, and organ lofts, and it covers northern and southern Europe, England and France of course, but also Poland and Spain. Renaissance Gothic is not simply a reevaluation of a style traditionally underrated as intermediary between its illustrious neighbors, High Gothic and Renaissance; it is also a book that in many ways will impose on scholars of both High Gothic and Renaissance a reassessment of their own periods of interest.
While interdisciplinarity was being bandied around as the academic buzzword of choice, and one often abusively used to describe projects whose originality or significance falls short of their attractive packaging, Chatenet was producing a truly interdisciplinary, truly innovative book.
La Cour de France is an engrossing exploration of space and its uses — an area traditionally overlooked by architectural historians who tend to focus on more style-oriented topics and social historians who tend to stay clear of the specificities of architectural solutions.
The first half of the book explores the life of the court: If the Vasarian tradition on the Italian front and, on the French one, the association of architects with the milieu of construction rather than with that of the arts have both played an essential role in the definition of this situation, as Mignot has stressed Mignot, the reality of the archival record should not be overlooked.
In a context where much architecture of the sixteenth century has been destroyed, the printed oeuvre of these architects often provides historians with testimonies of their work and of the work of others that would have otherwise been lost. Moreover, the printed dissemination of their ideas and production allowed these architects to increase their impact over several generations of practitioners and theoreticians in France and abroad.
While this abundance would suggest that there is little left to be explored about the architect and his oeuvre, the lacunae are, on the contrary, many and substantial. This is in striking contrast with the abundance of studies dedicated to the same themes for the medieval era.
Historians of early modern French architecture seem to have underemphasized agchitettura changes occurring in the profession between the late medieval and the early modern era as much as historians of Italian architecture have often overemphasized them.
A recent multi-authored overview that focuses on the relations of patrons and architects over five centuries, therefore offering a broader frame for the many study-cases, is Architectes et commanditaires: Yet dinascimento interest has taken new turns in recent years by focusing on previously overlooked categories of architectural patronage, by women and cardinals, for instance, as well as by extending the disciplinary spectrum to include the analysis of architectural patronage within artistic patronage at large.
Art and Power Richelieu Because of their wealth and their access to networks of artists and art collectors, Renaissance cardinals are an ideal subject for exploring questions of patronage. Because of their peripatetic careers, cardinals also were crucial channels for the dissemination of artistic trends and ideas. Both volumes mentioned here provide the reader with good overviews of the topic and with a variety of detailed case studies mostly, but not exclusively, centered on Italy and France.
Along with a number of volumes of collected essays dealing with early modern France and Europe — including Women and Art in Early Modern Europe: Strangely enough, none of the volumes listed here devote much space to architectural patronage specifically, even though the history of French early modern architecture from Delorme to Mansart is a history largely populated by buildings commissioned by women.
Traditional narratives have identified three main channels for the diffusion in France of classical and Italian models decorative motifs: It is now clear that these paradigms are outdated.
prof . Christoph Luitpold Frommel | DUOARCHITECTS studio associato & Partners
It is also clear that a theoretical model that emphasizes Italy as the exclusive source of artistic knowledge in early modern France is, in and of itself, problematic. Northern Europe might have momentarily disappeared from the map of nineteenth- and twentieth-century scholars of French art, but it was powerfully present to fifteenth- and sixteenth-century French artists and patrons.
As of yet, however, new paradigms have failed to replace the old ones. Not because it is unclear how ideas and visual models travelled in early modern Europe they travelled mostly on paper, in the form of drawings and texts, both as manuscripts and printed, as well as through portable objects such as coins, medals, and sculpturesbut because not much research has been dedicated to this topic and, where it has, as in the case of architectural treatises, very few surveys have been produced.
Of course, the most studied are the bestsellers of early modern Europe: An important volume of collected essays has been dedicated to Jean Martin, the de, studied but central figure of Renaissance humanism who translated into French the works of Vitruvius, Alberti, and Serlio, among others Cazauran Yet the focus on the textual, theoretical aspects of the art does not leave much space for drawings themselves, and architectural drawings in particular are essentially absent.
In The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making Johns, Adrian Johns has shown that early modern printed books shared many of the flexibilities of both content and layout not to speak of authorship claims deo the manuscript books that they did notin fact, replace. He has also shown that the overemphasis on printed material is the arcnitettura of a projection of our own manuscript-less, contemporary culture onto a past in which manuscripts and printed books coexisted for a long time as non-mutually exclusive.
The author explores a broad range of materials, from guidebooks to artifacts to drawings, and covers a vast array of literary and artistic figures, from Antoine Caron to Michel de Montaigne. She thus provides readers with a most welcome and complex picture of the wealth of exchanges, reinterpretations, and ginascimento that the revival of antiquity brought about in Renaissance Europe. Similar explorations on fromml reception and dissemination of Gallo-Roman antiquities have been undertaken by Lemerle herself Lemerle, while Carolyn Yerkes has examined the circulation of drawings of Roman ancient and modern buildings in seventeenth-century France Yerkes Christy Anderson, Renaissance ArchitectureOxford, deo Hilary Ballon, Louis Le Vau: Flaminia Bardati, Il bel palatio in forma di castello: Ginascimento tra flamboyant e RinascimentoDsl, Jules Hardouin-Mansart,Alexandre Gady, exh.
Anthony Blunt, Art and Architecture in France: Art et architecture en France: Joseph BoillotJoseph Boillot: Mario Carpo, La maschera e il modello: Nicole Cazauran, Jean Martin: Saulnier 16Paris, Monique Chatenet, ChambordParis, Monique Chatenet et al. Monique Chatenet, Fabrice Runascimento eds. Monique Chatenet, Claude Mignot eds. David Cowling, Building the Text: Edl de ConihoutPatrick Michel eds.
prof . Christoph Luitpold Frommel
Antoine Desgodets, Antoine Desgodets: Alain Erlande-Brandenburg et al eds. Sebastiano Serlio, architecte de la RenaissanceParis, ]. Sabine Frommel, Flaminia Bardati eds. Primatice architecteParis, ].
Sabine Frommel, Laurent Lecomte eds. Roberto Gargiani, Idea e costruzione del Louvre: Jean Guillaume, Peter Fuhring eds. Mary Hollingsworth, Carol M. Jean-Pierre Jacquemart, Architectures comtoises de la Renaissance: Jacques Androuet du Cerceau: Adrian Johns, The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the MakingChicago, Ethan Matt Kavaler, Renaissance Gothic: